Programme notes for recent Days of Heritage held around the region
EMIAC 81: The Impact of Leading Mining on the Peak District Landscape
Magpie Mine near Sheldon
Bacon Close Mine, Youlgreave
Coal Pit Hole Mine, Sparrow Pit
Images courtesy of the Peak District Mining Museum.
Organised by the Peak District Mines Historical Society, which celebrated its 50th anniversary in 2009, and held on Saturday 21st May 2011 in Matlock Bath.
The conference programme:
09:30 Registration with tea/coffee
10:00 Using Steam to Mine Lead - Archaeological Excavation at Engine Houses in Derbyshire
10:45 Hidden History of the Archaeology of Mine Drainage
11:45 The Hollow Hill - The Story of the Ecton Mines
12:30 Questions ...
12:45 EMIAC Business Meeting
13:00 Buffet lunch
14:00 Site visits
This conference explored the impact of lead mining on the Peak District landscape both underground and on the surface.
The conference venue was the Pavilion opened in 1910 as The Kursal a German name, which was changed as a result of the Great War. It is now home to the Peak District Mining Museum. This was set up in 1979, and is maintained by members of PDMHS.
Postscript to the conference
Dr John Barnett
A professional archaeologist and member of PDMHS Conservation Team, Dr John Barnett introduced three sites excavated by the team.
In 2000 work started at High Rake Mine near Great Hucklow at what had been a 'state of the art' lead mine of the 1840s. The findings included the impressive basement of a Sims pumping engine house and a separate winding house nearby.
On completion of this in 2008, they were invited to excavate the nearby Silence Mine exposing the remains of the building for a 1870s dual-purpose horizontal engine.
Currently the team are excavating the remains of an 18th century Newcomen pumping engine house at Watergrove Mine.
Dr Jim Rieuwerts
After a brief explanation of the geology of the area, Dr Jim Rieuwerts, one of the founder members of PDMHS, presented a history of lead mining in Derbyshire.
Opencast trenching lasted from at least the 12th century to the late 16th century. Limited underground mining started in the late 13th century, but by the mid-15th century was well-established in the Matlock area.
During the latter part of the 15th century pumping engines were to be found at several mines and in 1594 work was begun on the earliest recorded 'sough' or drainage level. By 1650 the technique was well established in Derbyshire and during the next two centuries over 400 drainage levels were driven to mines in the orefield. As the water table was lowered a complex pattern of ever deeper levels was produced.
It is believed that gunpowder blasting was first used in the area around 1662. Steam power in the form of a Newcomen pumping engine was first introduced at Winster c.1716. The more powerful Cornish engine made its appearance in the area during the 1830s.
David Webb, who specialises in the filming of underground exploration, screened his film The Hollow Hill, which was specially commissioned by the Ecton Hill Field Studies Association, to record the history of the Ecton Mines. Initially these were important for the mining of copper and later for zinc and lead, they were one of the most productive mines in the mid-18th century.
The following websites provide additional background to the papers presented:
Please note: Although checked at the time of writing, NIAG cannot be held responsible for the validity of these links or the integrity of these sites.